What is it?
Activation by personalization (ABP) is a method of end-device activation that directly links an end device to a previously chosen network. An end device activated through ABP can function with one network and retain the only security session for its lifetime.
Activation by personalization vs. over-the-air activation
Unlike over-the-air activation (OTAA), it avoids the join procedure where a dynamic device address is allocated, and security keys are negotiated with the device.
Therefore, activation by personalization is less secure than over-the-air activation, and devices can change network providers by only manually modifying keys in the device.
Activation by personalization in LoRaWAN 1.0.x
DevAddr, NwkSKey, and AppSKey are stored in the end device in place of DevEUI, AppEUI, and AppKey. Each end device possesses a unique NwkSKey and AppSkey. The same DevAddr and NwkSKey are stored in the network server. At the same time, AppSKey is stored in the application server.
Activation by personalization in LoRaWAN 1.1
DevAddr, FNwkSIntKey, SNwkSIntKey, NwkSEncKey, and AppSKey are stored in the end device in place of DevEUI, JoinEUI, AppKey, and NwkKey. The same DevAddr, FNwkSIntKey, SNwkSIntKey, and NwkSEncKey are stored in the network server. Meantime, AppSKey is stored in the application server.