What is it?
LoRaWAN® sensors refer to a combination of wireless sensors that empower long-range communication, lasting battery life, and simple data transmission. These sensors employ the Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) underlying the LoRa modulation technique. This technology is about encoding information on radio waves by using chirps, i.e., linear frequency-modulated signals.
How does it work?
With the help of a specialized module, LoRa may communicate to a local server represented by a gateway as well as send and receive information. The gateway itself acts as a bridge between LoRa sensors and the network server.
Principle of sensors’ operation
The functioning pattern of LoRaWAN® sensors is as follows:
- The sensor assembles intended data.
- The data is transferred to the gateway.
- The gateway transmits the data to the end user.
- The user acts, or the sensor triggers an action.
Some of the LoRaWAN® sensors include the following:
- humidity/temperature sensors
- parking lot sensors
- location tracking sensors
- panic button sensors
- motion sensors
- water level sensors
- voltage sensors
- air quality sensors
- accelerometer sensors
- noise sensors
- lighting sensors
Security of LoRaWAN® is also achieved through Adaptive Data Rate (ADR), which enables the network server to individually control data rate, RF transmission power, spreading factor, channels used, and the number of retransmissions made by each end device in the network while sending uplinks.
The LoRaWAN® protocol uses encryption and authentication layers. While the encryption layer employs AES-128 encryption, the authentication layer utilizes a unique key set. These keys are shared between devices and the network server. It hinders unauthorized devices from linking to the network.
Where is it used?
Common applications of LoRaWAN® sensors encompass smart cities, smart buildings, agriculture, industrial areas, healthcare, asset tracking, hospitality, and smart metering.