The LoRaWAN Network Features, Differentiators and Benefits
With the active development of the Internet of Things, there is a growing need for energy-efficient networks. Many IoT applications require data to be collected by sensors and sent over long distances. In addition, to deploy the Internet of Things, you may need devices to periodically transmit small packages of information over many years or even decades on a single battery charge.
It is estimated that Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) will support billions of future devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) industry. LPWAN network can be based on one of the technologies LoRaWAN, SIGFOX, NB-IoT, Weightless P, etc.
The term “LoRaWAN” refers to the communication protocol and system architecture of the network, and the physical layer of LoRa modulation, which provides long-distance communication.
LoRaWAN has one of the greatest impacts on the battery life of the node, network capacity, quality of service, security, and a variety of programs that serve the network.
LoRaWAN nodes exchange information when they have data ready to send. This type of protocol is commonly referred to as the Aloha method. In a cellular network or a synchronous network, such as a cellular network, nodes often have to “wake up” to synchronize with the network and check messages. This synchronization consumes a significant amount of power and is the number one driver to reduce battery life.
Picture 1. The LoraWan Architecture
Many existing deployed networks utilize a “mesh” network architecture. In a mesh LoRaWAN network, the individual end nodes forward the information of other nodes to increase the communication range and cell size of the network. While doing so increases range, it also adds complexity, reduces network capacity, and reduces battery lifetime as nodes forward and receive irrelevant information from other nodes. Long-range star architecture makes the most sense for preserving battery life when long-range connectivity can be achieved.
Picture 2 LoRaWAN network features
In a LoRaWAN, nodes are not connected to a specific gateway. Instead, data transmitted by a node is typically received by multiple gateways. Instead, the data transmitted by the node is usually received by multiple gateways. Each gateway sends the received packet from the end node to the cloud network servers via some backup connection (either mobile, Ethernet, satellite, or Wi-Fi).
Intelligence and complexity are transferred to the network servers that manage the network and will filter redundant packets received, perform security checks, schedule acknowledgments through the optimal gateway, perform adaptive data rates, and more. If the node is mobile or moving, there is no need to pass from gate to gate, which is a key feature that allows the asset tracking application.
Picture 3 LoRaWAN® Differentiators and Benefits
One of the key competitive advantages of the technology is the energy efficiency of the LoRa equipment used. In LoRa there are 3 classes of devices for power consumption:
1. A-class is the most economical. Devices of this class are powered by a battery for several years, which is achieved through the activity of the device only during the transmission of data on a programmed schedule. The rest of the time the device is in sleep, power-saving mode.
2. The C-Class, on the other hand, is constantly in a state of reception. That is why class C devices do not provide battery power.
3. Most of the time, the B-Class, like the A-Class, is in power-saving mode, but it has some of the server-side capabilities of the C-Class.
The LoRaWAN specification varies from region to region depending on the destination of the regional spectrum and regulatory requirements.LoRaWAN technical specifications for Europe and North America will be calculated, but other regions are still determined by the Technical Committee.
LoRaWAN for Europe
Lorawan defines eight of the ten channels: a 60 Kbps to 100 Kbps throughput, a Lora Channel for fast data transfer at 5 Kbps, and an FSC channel at 5 Kbps.la maximum power output allowed by Etsy in Europe is +30 dBm, with the exception of Group G1, which allows + 30 dBm. According to Etsy, there are limits on the lifecycle, but there is no limit on the maximum exit time or Arena channel.
LoRaWAN for North America
The ISM band in North America is 902-928 MHz. LoRaWAN sets 64, 125 kHz, 902, 3 914, 9 kHz, 200 MHz in the upper channels. Up to 100MHz, 800khz has more than 800 channels to eight channels. The lower eight channels have a frequency of 800 kHz from 10 MHz to 800 MHz. In North America, the maximum power is 902-928 MHz + 30 dBm, but for most devices with + 20 dBm, this is also enough. According to the FCC, there is no duty cycle limit, but there is a maximum transmission time of 400MS per channel.
LoRaWAN hybrid mode for North America
Most people are familiar with the FCC failure rate, which requires more than 50 channels for uniform use in the ISM range. LoRaWAN uses the existing spectrum and has over 50 channels installed to provide maximum power output.
The LoRaWAN network is ideal where other networks cannot be used due to distances, high energy consumption, high traffic, or lack of coverage. Where engineering services are unable to lay the cable, the LoRaWAN antenna also emerges. This standard is designed to connect devices that send small amounts of information over long distances with minimal energy consumption (which has a positive effect on the price of sensors). The openness of the standard, the longevity of network equipment, high energy efficiency, the absence of regulatory barriers, and the flexibility of solutions make LoRaWAN an almost ideal Internet of Things standard. And the simplicity with which you can build an LPWAN network is one of the most popular solutions in many areas of life.
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